Russia ready to negotiate with Ukraine on Black Sea Fleet
(NSI News Source Info) VLADIKAVKAZ August 18, 2008: Moscow is ready to negotiate with Ukraine on the use of the Russian Black Sea Fleet in the Crimea, but will not let Kiev dictate terms, the Russian president said on Monday.
Last Friday Ukrainian President Viktor Yushchenko said he had presented Russia with "an urgent proposition to launch talks and draw up an agreement to regulate bilateral relations during military operations" such as those in Georgia over the past week.
Dmitry Medvedev said: "The Russian Black Sea Fleet will be under particular attention, and let us not be given orders on how we must act. We will be acting in line with international agreements and directives issued by me as commander-in-chief."
Ships from Russia's Black Sea Fleet patrolled the waters off the Georgian coast during Russia's "peace enforcement" operation that began after Georgia launched an offensive in breakaway South Ossetia on August 8.
Yushchenko signed a decree last Wednesday stating that Russia was required to notify the Ukrainian authorities of all movements by naval vessels and aircraft from its Crimea-based Black Sea Fleet.
Medvedev said Russia is ready to negotiate on the issue, but that "everything should be based on our international agreements."
Yushchenko signed the document last week after returning from Tbilisi, where he took part in a mass rally in support of Georgian President Mikheil Saakashvili amid fighting with Russia. Both leaders have pursued pro-Western policies, seeking to join NATO and the European Union and reduce Russian influence.
Ukraine even threatened to refuse to allow the Russian vessels to return to the Sevastopol naval base. Russia's Defense Ministry earlier said that the Russian Navy had sunk a Georgian vessel transporting missile launchers.
Russia's Black Sea Fleet uses the Sevastopol base under agreements signed in 1997. Yushchenko announced earlier this year that Ukraine would not extend the lease beyond 2017.
International Air Show in Kecskemet, HungaryAugust 18, 2008 NSI News Source Info Formation Turkish Stars perform during an International Air Show in Kecskemet 90km (60 miles) south of Budapest on August 17, 2008.
Italian formation Frecce Tricolori perform during an International Air Show in Kecskemet 90km (60 miles) south of Budapest on August 17, 2008.
Hungarian parachuters perform during an International Air Show in Kecskemet 90km (60 miles) south of Budapest August 16, 2008.
A Belgian F-16 performs during an International Air Show in Kecskemet 90km (60 miles) south of Budapest August 16, 2008.
Italian formation Frecce Tricolori perform during an International Air Show in Kecskemet 90km (60 miles) south of Budapest August 16, 2008.
India: Indian Air Force - IAF to add teeth with Israeli missile system
(NSI News Source Info) NEW DELHI August 18, 2008: The long-delayed IAF plans to plug gaps in its air defence capabilities are finally making some headway now, with the government giving the go-ahead for the procurement of SpyDer low-level quick-reaction missile systems from Israel. SpyDer Missile System
Sources said the deal for the 18 SpyDer systems, at a cost over Rs 1,800 crore, should be "inked within a few weeks" after being approved by the Defence Acquisitions Council. The deal has been hanging fire for quite some time now, with one of the main reasons being the naming of Israeli Aerospace Industries and Rafael in the Rs 1,160 crore Barak-I deal kickbacks case by the CBI.
The government, however, was reluctant to blacklist these Israeli armament firms since it would have proven "counter-productive" with several "crucial" defence projects underway with them. Now, with the Left albatross no longer hanging around its neck, the government seems to be quietly moving ahead with procurements and projects with Israel.
These include the projects to develop new-generation 'Barak' surface-to-air (SAM) missile systems.
The IAF had pushed for the SpyDer systems, which have Python-5 and Derby missiles to take on hostile aircraft, helicopters, drones and PGMs (precision-guided munitions), due to persistent delays in the indigenous Akash and Trishul SAM systems.
Interestingly, DRDO earlier this year declared that the Akash air defence system, with an interception range of 25-km, was now ready. It promised to deliver an initial two Akash squadrons to IAF, at a cost of Rs 1,081 crore, within three years.
The IAF, of course, is in desperate need of advanced air defence systems to replace its ageing fleet of Russian-origin Pechora, IGLA and OSA-AK missile systems. The gigantic Rs 10,000 crore project with Israel to develop an advanced new-generation SAM system, capable of detecting and destroying hostile aircraft, missiles and spy drones at a range of 120-km, will go a long way in boosting IAF's air defence capabilities to protect "vital and strategic assets". This project, cleared by the Cabinet Committee on Security in July 2007, will provide IAF with an initial nine air defence squadrons.
It's actually an extension of the ongoing DRDO-IAI project, cleared in January 2006 at a cost of Rs 2,606 crore, to develop a supersonic 70-km-range Barak-2 missile defence system for the Navy.
This naval long-range SAM (LR-SAM) system basically has four components: the multi-function surveillance and threat alert radars, with a 350-km range; the weapon control system with data links; the vertical launch units; and the actual two-stage interceptor missiles.
"With most of the design work now over, this LR-SAM project should be completed by 2011. The three Kolkata-class guided-missile destroyers being built at Mazagon Docks will be the first to be equipped with them," said a source.
These projects, one again, underline the emergence of Israel as India's second largest defence partner since the 1999 Kargil conflict, with New Delhi sourcing armaments worth a staggering $8 billion from Tel Aviv.
Abkhazia to deploy guards on Georgian border
(NSI News Source Info) SUKHUMI August 18, 2008: Abkhazia will start deploying guards on Monday on its de facto border with Georgia, where an operation to oust Georgian troops was completed last week, the breakaway republic's deputy defense minister said.
"Border guards will be deployed from [Monday]. We will use those areas formerly occupied by the Georgians," Garri Kupalba said on Sunday.
Abkhazia launched an attack on August 12 to force Georgia's troops from the northern part of the Kodori Gorge, the only part of the rebel province that was still controlled by Georgia. The operation, which Abkhazia said did not involve Russian troops, was completed on August 13.
Georgia launched an offensive to retake its other separatist republic, South Ossetia, on August 8. The majority of residents of South Ossetia hold Russian citizenship, and Moscow launched a massive operation to expel Georgian troops from the region and to reinforce its peacekeepers.
S.Ossetian leader sacks government, proclaims state of emergency
(NSI News Source Info) MOSCOW August 18, 2008: South Ossetian President Eduard Kokoity has dismissed the government of the Georgian breakaway republic and proclaimed a one-month state of emergency, his spokesman said on Monday.
The decrees were signed on Sunday. The state of emergency will last until September 17.
An emergency committee is also to be set up to deal with the aftermath of Georgia's August 8 attack on the de facto independent republic, Kokoity told Russia's Vesti-24 television. The speaker of the separatist parliament, Znaur Gassiyev, has been appointed its head.
Boris Chochiev has been named as acting prime minister. Chochiev, a former South Ossetian vice-premier, will replace Yuri Morozov. The reasons for Morozov's dismissal were not specified. Georgia launched a major offensive to seize control of South Ossetia on August 8, prompting Russia to send several hundred tanks and thousands of troops into the region.
Russia says at least 1,600 civilians were killed in the Georgian attack on Tskhinvali, the capital of South Ossetia. Moscow has also warned of a humanitarian crisis in the area. Some 12,000 refugees are currently being housed at camp across the border in the Russian republic of North Ossetia. Up to half of the republic's population of some 70,000 is believed to have fled the fighting.
At a government session on Sunday, Kokoity heavily criticized his criticized his Cabinet over their management of the distribution of humanitarian aid to the residents of South Ossetia.
"I'm completely dissatisfied with the work of the government," Kokoity said.
Condoleezza Rice due in Warsaw to sign U.S. missile shield deal
(NSI News Source Info) WASHINGTON August 18, 2008: U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice is set to visit Warsaw on Monday to sign a deal on the deployment of elements of a U.S. missile shield in Poland.
Her trip to the Polish capital will come after a visit to Brussels, Belgium, for an emergency session of the NATO Council "to discuss the situation in Georgia and its implications for the region," a U.S. State Department statement read. Rice also plans to meet in Brussels with EU leaders, including French Foreign Minister Bernard Kouchner, European Union High Representative Javier Solana, and European Commissioner for External Relations Benita Fererro-Waldner. France currently holds the EU rotating presidency.
"In Warsaw, Secretary Rice will sign a formal agreement with Poland on behalf of the United States for the establishment and operation of a ballistic missile defense interceptor site in Poland. This agreement is an important step in our efforts to protect the United States and our European allies from the growing threat posed by the proliferation of ballistic missiles," the statement also read.
The deal to place 10 interceptor missiles in Poland was reached last Thursday, and followed the signing of an agreement on July 8 by the U.S. and Czech foreign ministries to place a U.S. radar in the Czech Republic.
Moscow has consistently expressed its opposition to the U.S. missile shield, saying it threatens its national security. The U.S. claims the shield is designed to thwart missile attacks by what it calls "rogue states," including Iran.
However, speaking in the Black Sea resort of Sochi on Friday, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev said again that Moscow had no doubt that the missile shield was aimed against Russia.
"The deployment of new missile-defense elements in Europe has the Russian Federation as its aim," Medvedev said.
Announcing the deal, which was reached after months of protracted talks, Polish Prime Minister Donald Tusk said in televised remarks that "events in the Caucasus show clearly that such security guarantees are indispensable."
A top Russian military official subsequently said that by signing the deal Poland was leaving itself open to a military strike, including a nuclear attack.
The U.S. has denied however that the announcement of the deal was linked to the recent armed conflict in Georgia, which began on August 8 when Georgian forces attacked the capital of breakaway South Ossetia.
During the subsequent Russian military operation to force Georgian troops out of the de facto independent republic and to reinforce its peacekeepers, Moscow deployed some 10,000 servicemen and several hundred armored vehicles in the region.
The U.S. criticized Russia's response, calling it "disproportionate."
A French-brokered peace plan was signed by Medvedev in Moscow on Saturday, a day after being signed in Tbilisi by Georgian President Mikheil Saakashvili.
Attack on mosque in Azerbaijani capital kills at least two
(NSI News Source Info) BAKU August 18, 2008: A grenade attack on a mosque during evening prayers in the Azerbaijani capital of Baku has killed at least two people and injured 11 others, police have said.
The attack occurred in the Abu-Bekr mosque at 8:50 pm local time (17:50 GMT) on Sunday when an unidentified assailant threw two grenades into a prayer area.
Eyewitnesses disputed police casualty figures, however, saying said three people had died. The mosque's imam was wounded, but his life is not in danger.
Local media said that hundreds of people were in the mosque at the time of the attack.
No one has claimed responsibility. An investigation is under way.
Iran launches dummy satellite - Iranian space agency
(NSI News Source Info) TEHRAN August 18, 2008: Iran has successfully put a dummy satellite into orbit, the Islamic Republic's space agency has reported.
Iranian state news agency IRNA reported on Sunday, citing the country's Armed Forces General Staff, that an Iranian carrier rocket had successfully orbited the country's first domestically built satellite, called Omid or Hope.
"The Safir (Messenger) carrier rocket was successfully launched today. For the first time ever, the carrier rocket delivered a dummy satellite into orbit," the Iranian Space Agency said on Sunday.
Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad personally attended the launch of the carrier rocket, a spokesman for the Islamic Republic said.
US, South Korea start war games denounced by North Korea
(NSI News Source Info) SEOUL August 18, 2008: South Korea and the United States on Monday began an annual joint military exercise involving tens of thousands of troops which communist North Korea has denounced as a 'criminal' act.Seoul's Joint Chiefs of Staff office said 56,000 South Korean troops and 10,000 US soldiers were taking part in the five-day Ulchi Freedom Guardian drill which involves large-scale computer-simulated war games.Some 4,000 government offices and more than 300,000 civil servants nation wide are also involved.President Lee Myung-Bak presided over a National Security Council meeting and a separate cabinet meet in an underground bunker as part of the exercise, his office said."We are conducting the drill the way we should do in case of war," a senior presidential aide told AFP on condition of anonymity.The South's military upgraded its defence readiness condition by one notch to DEFCON II. The cabinet issued a national mobilisation order authorising a limited call-up of reservists and civilian equipment, the aide said.The North routinely criticises such exercises as a prelude to invasion, while the US and South Korea say they are purely defensive.The North last month denounced this week's exercise as a "criminal act" which would raise tensions on the divided peninsula.South Korea has remained technically at war with the North since their 1950-53 war ended only with an armistice and not a peace pact.South Korea's military for the first time will command its troops during the exercise, in preparation for the transfer to Seoul in 2012 of wartime operational control over its own forces.At present the US, which has 28,500 service personnel in the South, assumes control over both Korean and US forces should war break out.Lieutenant General Joseph Fil Jr., commander of the 8th US Army in South Korea, warned on Friday that if North Korea attacked South Korea, the communist nation would lose and the two Koreans would be reunified."There is no doubt, if the North Koreans decide to cause trouble, what the outcome will be. No doubt at all," Fil told a group of American teachers at US bases here, according to the Stars and Stripes newspaper.Diplomatic efforts to scrap North Korea's nuclear weapons programmes are currently stalled pending an agreement on ways to verify the North's declaration of its atomic activities.
Afghanistan: Nine Afghans killed in suicide attack on US base
(NSI News Source Info) KABUL August 18, 2008: A suicide car bomb blew up outside a US base in eastern Afghanistan on Monday, killing nine Afghan civilians and wounding 13 more, Afghan and US military official said.The blast did not penetrate the base in the eastern town of Khost and Afghan security forces were able to prevent a second explosion moments later, they said."Insurgents detonated a vehicle-borne IED (improvised explosive device) outside a US base in Khost province today, killing nine Afghan local nationals and wounding another 13 according to initial reports," the US-led coalition said in a statement.A secretary to the Khost governor, Mohammad Bilal, gave the same toll. "It was a suicide car bombing against the gates of the Salerno camp," he said."Moments later a second car bomber came and wanted to detonate his bombs. Police identified him and opened fire on him. He came out of the car and escaped on a motorcycle and disappeared," Bilal said.The second car bomb was destroyed by experts, he said.US troops had help to evacuate the wounded to a base hospital and were providing medical care, the coalition statement said.The attack came as Afghanistan was marking its independence from Britain 89 years ago with a security clampdown in the capital amid warnings from Nato's International Security Assistance Force (Isaf) of possible attacks.There was no immediate claim of responsibility for the attack but it was similar to scores carried out by the Taliban who have regrouped after being driven from government in late 2001 to launch a growing insurgency.
28 civilians killed in Philippines rebel attacks: officials
(NSI News Source Info) ILIGAN August 18, 2008: At least 28 civilians and three soldiers were killed on Monday in a wave of Muslim separatist rebel attacks in the southern Philippines, witnesses and officials said.Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) rebels raided several towns in southern Lanao del Norte province, looting businesses, burning homes and randomly attacking the mostly Christian villagers, officials said.Nine bodies were lying bloodied by a roadside in the village of Lapayan in Kauswagan town as black smoke billowed from houses burning nearby, AFP reporters said.Five other civilians were killed in a neighbouring village, residents fleeing the area told AFP. Six more bodies were found in Kauswagan later Monday. All 20 bodies were taken by troops to two mortuaries in Iligan city a few kilometres (miles) away, an AFP reporter saw. Meanwhile, in the town of Kolambugan, six civilians and three soldiers were killed, mayor Beltran Lumaque said in a radio interview.Another rebel unit struck the town of Maasim, leaving two civilians dead as they ransacked a pawnshop and looted a drug store, said military spokesman Major Randolph Cabangbang.
(NSI News Source Info) ISLAMABAD August 18, 2008 - Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf announced his resignation on Monday in the face of looming impeachment charges, ending a turbulent nine years in power. “After viewing the situation and consulting legal advisers and political allies, with their advice I have decided to resign,” a grim-faced Musharraf, wearing a sober suit and tie, said in a televised address to the nation. “I leave my future in the hands of the people.” Musharraf said he would hand his resignation to the speaker of the national assembly (lower house of parliament) later on Monday. He made the shock announcement after denying that any of the impeachment charges against him could stand and launching into a lengthy defence of his time in power.“Not a single charge in the impeachment can stand against me,” Musharraf said. “No charge can be proved against me because I never did anything for myself, it was all for Pakistan.” He said that there was now law and order in the country, that human rights and democracy had been improved and that Pakistan was now an crucial country internationally. “On the map of the world, Pakistan is now an important country, by the grace of Allah,” he said. Musharraf's popularity slumped last year amid his attempts to oust the country's chief justice and then during a wave of Taliban suicide bombings that killed more than 1,000 people, including former premier Benazir Bhutto. He imposed a state of emergency in November last year to force his re-election to another five-year term through the Supreme Court, but his political allies were trounced at the February polls.The coalition of parties which won the February election, led by Benazir Bhutto's Pakistan People's Party, finally overcame months of divisions and agreed to impeach Musharraf on August 7. It piled on the pressure with no-confidence votes in Pakistan's four provincial assemblies last week. Then on Sunday it said it had drawn up impeachment charges and would lodge them in parliament this week. The charges reportedly included violation of the constitution and gross misconduct. Officials say that Musharraf's aides have been in talks with the coalition, brokered by Saudi Arabia, the United States and Britain, to allow him to quit in return for indemnity. Musharraf's spokesman had repeatedly denied in recent days that he was about to quit, and it was not immediately clear what would happen next. But a lack of apparent support from Pakistan's army, which he left in November, apparently made other options -- including dissolving parliament or even declaring another state of emergency -- impossible. Speculation over Musharraf's fate intensified overnight when US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice said that granting asylum to Musharraf was not currently under consideration by the United States. “That's not an issue on the table, and I just want to keep our focus on what we must do with the democratic government of Pakistan,” Rice said. Western allies want Pakistan to resolve the crisis over Musharraf so it can deal with the fight against Taliban and Al-Qaeda militants in the tribal areas bordering Afghanistan, where nearly 500 people have died in the past week.The government is also struggling to deal with a severe economic crunch. (Posted @ 14:56 PST)
Brief summary of President Pervez Musharraf's speech delivered in Urdu language
(NSI News Source Info) ISLAMABAD August 18, 2008: President Pervez Musharraf began his address to the nation at 13.13 PST at the President’s House in Islamabad, saying “Today is a day of an important decision for me.” Proceedings began with recitation from the Holy Quran at 13.10 pm. President Pervez Musharraf said the nation is aware of the crisis it is going through. He said ‘when I assumed charge nine years ago the country was about to be branded a failed state and a terrorist state. He asid assumed charge with the aim of rescuing the country. In the last nine years I have tried my best to serve the country to the best of my ability… during confrontation with India, 9/11 and its aftermath and the devastating earthquake.’ ‘In all these crises we stood up thanks to the Grace of Gof and saved Pakistan from the crises. In handling the problems the sole aim was the well-being of the people and the safety and security of Pakistan. I have taken part in two wars which Pakistan fought… [The coalition government] They deceived the people. Never did they realize that they may win against me but how adversely the contry was affected did not concern them. Economic decline and energy crisis we’re experiencing is being attributed to my policies. I would like to put some facts before the nation, especially the economy. The economy was doing well, in fact very well before Deb 2007. he GDP growth was 7 percent. Revenue collection had reached $1 trillion. The KSE index was around 15,000 points. All these indicators are of reight months ago. Pakistans economy was poised to take off. How did the economic probkem start all of a sudden? Why has the stock exchange lost 5,000 points. Why has the rupee lost almost 30 percent of its value? Surely, the present economic crisis is owing to rising oil prices and similar other developments on a global basis. But it is wholly incorrect to put blame on these global factors alone. It is our own failures during the last 8 months. Power Sector: We were producing 14,000 MW in June 2007 but are now producing just about 10,000 MW. Why? In a nutshell, the people are being fooled. Let us now look forward to find solutions to take the country out of the woods. During the past nine years, we addressed all sectors and accelerated development in the country. In these 9 years , we constructed several roads and bypasses and worked on several other developmental projects. You can see for yourself how much we have done including all the dams that have been constructed (such as the Mirani Dam). Several canals are also being constructed. These developments will help irrigate 3 million acre fields in the country. There was massive industrialisation during the last nine years. There was a lot done for higher education. Nice universities from different foreign countries had agreed to set up campuses in the country. In the health sector primary and secondary healthcare was given priority. Safe drinking water was a sector that was addressed on priority and 6000 water purification plants were set up. Women were given political empowerment and now you see a lot more women in eh assemblies. Honour killing was discouraged and Hudood Ordinance laws were revamped. The minorities were given opportunities and culture and heritage was given due importance. Democracy: We incorporated the essence of democracy into the system through a highly progressive Local Bodies system. Anyone harming it will harm Pakistan. We held two successful general elections. Global Image: We introduced Pakistans true image all over the world which proves the success of our policies. I’m proud of all the achievements. If you look at the donor’s conference, we were given 6.5 billion dollars in donations when we needed 5 billion. I’ll come to the current economic scenario now. From the beginning, I wanted to create a reconciliatory atmosphere in Pakistans politics on a personal and institutional level. I talked about the 3-phase transition to democracy in Pakistan. The third phase was achieved last year when I doffed my uniform and held free and fair elections in Pakistan. After the elections, people had hopes from their leaders in the govt. Pakistanis have been looking forward toward prosperity and stability in the political atmosphere. Is unfortunate my appeals to strive for reconciliation and a resolution of economic issues facing the people went unheeded. Some sections of the political forces chose confrontation rather than reconciliation. The President’s office was accused of conspiring against the new democratic setup. You should remember it was I who held free and fair elections. Look at the PM’s election the coalition setup in Sindh. The opposition cooperated with the govt. in getting the budget passed. I have publicly announced my support to the govt. I have offered the govt. my services. Unfortunately the coalition govt. thinks me a problem and wants to impeach. What are they scared of and why do they want to do this? Impeachment and Charge-Sheet is the right of the Parliament. But I am confident that no charge can be proved against me. All my actions were for the good of the people and the country. All my major decisions were the consent of all concerned and all stake-holders, e.g. services, bureaucracy, civil society, etc. I am not at all worried about the Charge-Sheet because nothing can be proved. But the larger issue is what isit going to cost Pakistan – its economy, political and social order, honour and prestige of the highest office of the state. Such are the considerations upper-most in my mind. Whether I’m impeached or nto, the country’s stability will be compromised. The office of the president will also be insulted. Pakistan is my love; now and always, my life is for Pakistan. I have defended and will continue to defend Pakistan. I want to be able to bring Pakistan out of the current crisis so I think perhaps should do something. But I also do not want to do something that may generate uncertainty in the country. I also want to save the Parliament from horse-trading. Even if the impeachment is defeated, the relations between the President’s office and the coalition govt. will not heal. Institutions will be endangered. Therefore, with this situation in view and having consulted my legal and political advisors, I have decided to resign from my post. I have decided to resign from the office of President and my resignation will be handed over to the Speaker of the National Assembly. I want the people to be the judges and let them decide my fate. I am a human being and may have committed follies.
Supporters of Pakistan's religious party, Jamat-i-Islami, or Party of Islam, take part in a demonstration as they shout slogans against Pakistan's President Pervez Musharraf in Karachi, Pakistan, on Sunday, Aug. 17, 2008. President Pervez Musharraf will not resign, his spokesman said Sunday, even after Pakistan's coalition agreed a host of charges with which to impeach the former general.
CHRONOLOGY-Months of turmoil for Pakistan's Musharraf Islamabad, August 18 (NSI News Source Info) - Beleaguered President Pervez Musharraf announced his resignation on Monday in the face of an impending impeachment motion by Pakistan's ruling coalition government. The former army chief and firm U.S. ally had seen his popularity slide over the past 18 months and had been isolated since his parliamentary allies lost a February general election. Here is a chronology of recent events that led to the downfall of Musharraf, who seized power in a bloodless coup in December 1999 and became president in 2001.
March 9, 2007 - Musharraf suspends Supreme Court Justice Iftikhar Chaudhry over allegations of misconduct. Lawyers rally around the top judge and Musharraf's popularity plummets.
July 10 - Musharraf orders troops to storm the Red Mosque in Islamabad to crush a Taliban-style movement there. At least 105 people are killed. Militant attacks and suicide bombings follow.
July 20 - Supreme Court reinstates Chief Justice Chaudhry, dealing a blow to Musharraf's authority.
July 27 - Musharraf meets former prime minister Benazir Bhutto in Abu Dhabi for inconclusive talks on how to move the country towards a civilian-led democracy. Bhutto demands Musharraf step down as army chief.
Sept 10 - Former prime minister Nawaz Sharif is arrested at Islamabad airport on his arrival from exile, despite the Supreme Court clearing his return. He is deported to Saudi Arabia.
Oct 2 - Musharraf's government announces it will drop graft charges against Bhutto, clearing the way for her return.
Oct 6 - Musharraf wins a presidential vote by legislators. Supreme Court holds off confirming legality of vote.
Oct 19 - Suicide bomber tries to assassinate Bhutto in Karachi as she returns from eight years of exile.
Nov 2 - Supreme Court meets to decide if Musharraf was eligible to stand for re-election while still army chief.
Nov 3 - Musharraf imposes emergency rule, detaining thousands of opposition politicians and lawyers.
Nov 11 - Musharraf says parliamentary elections will be held by Jan. 8.
Nov 13 - Bhutto is placed under house arrest for a week in Lahore, hours before planned march against emergency rule. Bhutto says Musharraf must quit as president.
Nov 15 - Musharraf appoints Senate chairman Mohammadmian Soomro to head a caretaker line-up to oversee elections.
Nov 22 - Commonwealth suspends Pakistan.
Nov 25 - Sharif returns from exile.
Nov 28 - Tearful Musharraf hands command of the army to General Ashfaq Kayani.
Nov 29 - Musharraf is sworn in as civilian leader.
Dec 15 - Musharraf lifts state of emergency, restores constitution.
Dec 27 - Bhutto is assassinated in a gun and bomb attack.
Jan 2 - Election delayed from Jan 8 to Feb 18 because of disturbances after Bhutto's assassination.
Feb 18 - Resounding election victory for parties led by Bhutto's widower Asif Ali Zardari (Pakistan People's Party) and Sharif (Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz). Analysts say Musharraf may be driven out.
March 9 - Sharif says he will join Zardari to form a coalition hostile to Musharraf.
Aug 7 - Ruling coalition says it will launch proceedings to impeach Musharraf.
Aug 16 - Pakistan's ruling coalition prepares impeachment charges against Musharraf focusing on violation of the constitution and misconduct.