Friday, July 02, 2010
DTN News: UK Ministry Of Defence Signs Scout SV Contract With General Dynamics UK
DTN News: Oshkosh Defense Announces New Delivery Orders For Heavy-Duty Army Vehicles
HEMTT A4) vehicles, the backbone of the Army’s logistics and resupply fleet, and more than 530 Palletized Load System (PLS) trailers. “For more than 30 years, Oshkosh HEMTTs have provided unparalleled performance to U.S. soldiers,” said Charlie Szews, Oshkosh Corporation president and chief operating officer. “The production of these next-generation vehicles and support trailers, as well as the recapitalization of existing HEMTTs to like-new condition, signifies the fleet will continue to support and protect Warfighters for decades to come.” Through Oshkosh Defense remanufacturing and recapitalization services, heavily used vehicles are returned to Oshkosh, stripped to their frame rails, completely rebuilt to like-new condition and upgraded to the new A4 configuration. For the Oshkosh® HEMTT A4, changes include a more powerful drivetrain; improved suspension; a fully air-conditioned and armor-ready cab; and other structural changes to make in-the-field installation of add-on armor quicker and easier. Recapitalized vehicles are reset to zero miles and zero hours, and offer a significant cost savings compared to new vehicles. HEMTT deliveries begin in July 2010 and continue through September 2011. PLS trailer production will start in June 2011 and continue through October 2011. About Oshkosh Defense
Oshkosh Defense, a division of Oshkosh Corporation, is an industry-leading global designer and manufacturer of tactical military trucks and armored wheeled vehicles, delivering a full product line of conventional and hybrid vehicles, advanced armor options, proprietary suspensions and vehicles with payloads that can exceed 70 tons. Oshkosh Defense provides a global service and supply network including full life-cycle support and remanufacturing, and its vehicles are recognized the world over for superior performance, reliability and protection. For more information, visit www.oshkoshdefense.com. About Oshkosh Corporation
Oshkosh Corporation is a leading designer, manufacturer and marketer of a broad range of specialty access equipment, commercial, fire & emergency and military vehicles and vehicle bodies. Oshkosh Corporation manufactures, distributes and services products under the brands of Oshkosh®, JLG®, Pierce®, McNeilus®, Medtec®, Jerr-Dan®, Oshkosh Specialty Vehicles, Frontline™, SMIT™, CON-E-CO®, London® and IMT®. Oshkosh products are valued worldwide in businesses where high quality, superior performance, rugged reliability and long-term value are paramount. For more information, visit www.oshkoshcorporation.com. ®, ™ All brand names referred to in this news release are trademarks of Oshkosh Corporation or its subsidiary companies.
DTN News: U.S. Department of Defense Contracts Dated July 2, 2010 Source: U.S. DoD issued July 2, 2010 (NSI News Source Info) WASHINGTON - July 3, 2010: U.S. Department of Defense, Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Public Affairs) Contracts issued July 2, 2010 are undermentioned;<> CONTRACTS ARMY ~Oshkosh Corp., Oshkosh, Wis., was awarded on June 29 a $584,914,693 firm-fixed-price, requirements contract. This contract is for the purchase of 1,274 Heavy Expanded Mobility Tactical Trucks (HEMTT) variant trucks; 452 refurbished HEMTT trucks; and 98 palletized load systems trailers. Work is to be performed in Oshkosh, Wis., with an estimated completion date of Sept. 30, 2012. One bid was solicited with one bid received. TACOM, Warren, Mich., is the contracting activity (W56HZV-09-D-0024). ~Oshkosh Corp., Oshkosh, Wis., was awarded on June 29 a $105,570,416 firm-fixed-price contract. This contract is for the production of 644 family of medium tactical vehicles; 621 trucks; and 43 trailers. Work is to be performed in Oshkosh, Wis., with an estimated completion date of March 31, 2012. Bids were solicited on the World Wide Web with three bids received. TACOM LCMC, Warren, MI CCTA-ATB, Warren, Mich., is the contracting activity (W56HZV-09-D-0159). ~TASC, Inc., Andover, Mass., was awarded on June 30 a $44,786,637 firm-fixed-price contract. The contractor shall provide all the necessary labor, supplies, material and equipment in support of the U.S. Army Special Programs Office (ASPO), Systems Engineering and Technical Assistance (SETA). The SETA support encompasses a broad range of technical, engineering, and program/project management functions pertaining to systems and subject matter expertise for operation, acquisition, requirement management, full life cycle support, architecture development, training, and system integration. The contractor shall support conferences, demonstrations, and trade exhibits with the generation and fabrication of graphic and photo-based material, and artifacts generated at the government facility. The contractor shall provide technical expertise in the material acquisition process, and planning programming and budget execution system support for the ASPO budget office. Work is to be performed in Alexandria, Va., with an estimated completion date of June 30, 2015. Bids were solicited on the World Wide Web with two bids received. Army Geospatial Center, Contract Office, Alexandria, Va., is the contracting activity (W5J9CQ-10-C-0019). ~Atlantic Diving Supply, Inc., Virginia Beach, Va., was awarded on June 29 a $39,500,000 firm-fixed-price contract. This contract is to purchase Generation III extreme cold weather clothing systems kits. Work is to be performed in Newark, NJ. (24 percent); Mayaguez, Puerto Rico (24 percent); Lansing, Mich. (18 percent); Fall River, Mass. (10 percent); Tullahoma, Tenn. (10 percent); Post Falls, Idaho (5 percent); Virginia Beach, Va. (5 percent); North Conway, N.H. (2 percent); and Mukilteo, Wash. (2 percent), with an estimated completion date of Dec. 29, 2011. Bids were solicited on the World Wide Web with three bids received. U.S. Army Research Development & Engineering Command Contracting Center, Natick, Mass., is the contracting activity (W911QY-07-D-0003). ~EvensonBest, New York, N.Y., was awarded on June 29 a $37,890,714 firm-fixed-price contract. As a result of the 2005 Base Realignment and Closure recommendation, the Defense Information Systems Agency has a need to lease-to-purchase private office case goods, open plans work stations, and general furnishings for a new headquarters facility at Fort Meade, Md. Work is to be performed in Fort Meade, Md., with an estimated completion date of June 24, 2013. Bids were solicited on the World Wide Web with three bids received. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Baltimore District, Baltimore, Md., is the contracting activity (W912DR-10-D-0033). ~United Technologies Corp., Hartford, Conn., was awarded on June 28 a $33,866,773 cost-plus-fixed-fee contract. The contactor shall perform the Vulcan Program, Phase II, to further develop constant volume combustion (CVC) technology and culminate in a full scale demonstration of a Vulcan engine - CVC module and power turbine engine - that addresses near-term Department of Defense transition needs with the potential to significantly impact multiple defense and commercial applications. Specifically, Phase II will focus on naval ship-based power generation applications with CVC and an end-to-end demonstration for production turbine with an integrated CVC module. Work is to be performed in East Hartford, Conn. (52.40 percent); Hartford, Conn. (34.42 percent); and Jupiter, Fla. (13.18 percent), with an estimated completion date of June 27, 2012. Defense Advanced Research Project Agency, Arlington, Va., is the contracting activity (HR0011-10-C-0143). ~Dragados USA, Inc., New York, N.Y., was awarded on June 29 a $33,770,948 firm-fixed-price contract for the recovery of “Rio Puerto Nuevo Flood Control Project, Margarita Channel Improvements and Miscellaneous Features Cam Juan, Puerto, Puerto Rico.” Work includes new excavation; wetland mitigations; demolition of two abandoned sewer siphons; construction of one grade control structure; and incidental related work. Work is to be performed in San Juan, Puerto Rico, with an estimated completion date of July 31, 2013. Sixty-five bids were solicited with three bids received. Honorable Pedro Pierluisi, Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico, Washington, D.C., is the contracting activity (W912EP-10-C-0035). ~Northrop Grumman Corp., San Diego, Calif., was awarded on June 30 a $33,344,592 cost-plus-fixed-fee contract. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency’s Global Hawk autonomous aerial refueling demonstration program will accomplish the first-ever fully autonomous rendezvous, rejoin, station keeping, aerial refueling, and formation separation of two unmanned aircraft. The demonstration will employ precise and robust antonymous operations to overcome the dual challenges of high-altitude flights environment and the limited control authority associated with long-endurance aircraft. A successful outcome will allow developers of future unmanned aircraft to produce more cost-effective systems that rely on aerial refueling for the most demanding missions. Work is to be performed in San Diego, Calif. (82 percent); Salt Lake City, Utah (9 percent); and Davenport, Iowa (9 percent), with an estimated completion date of June 29, 2012. Bids were solicited on the World Wide Web with 341 bids received. Defense Advanced Research Project Agency, CMO, Arlington, Va., is the contacting activity (HR0011-10-C-0076). ~Oshkosh Corp., Oshkosh, Wis., was awarded on June 29 a $30,910,661 firm-fixed-price contract for the procurement of 286 family of medium tactical vehicles; 37 b-kits; 167 trucks; and 119 trailers. Work is to be performed in Oshkosh, Wis., with an estimated completion date of March 31, 2012. Bids were solicited on the World Wide Web with three bid received. TACOM LCMC, Warren, MI CCTA-ATB, Warren, Mich., is the contracting activity (W56HZV-09-D-0159). ~BAE Systems, Specialty Group, Inc., Phoenix, Ariz., was awarded on June 30 a $16,999,833 firm-fixed-price contract for helmet sensors, Generation II. Work is to be performed in Phoenix, Ariz., with an estimated completion date of June 15, 2015. Bids were solicited on the World Wide Web with two bids received. U.S. Army Research Development & Engineering Command, Natick Contracting Division, Natick, Mass., is the contracting activity (W911QY-10-D-0006). ~Allen-Vanguard, Inc., Ogdensburg, N.Y., was awarded on June 30 a $16,999,760 firm-fixed-price contract for helmet sensors, Generation II. Work is to be performed in Ogdensburg, N.Y., with an estimated completion date of June 15, 2015. Bids were solicited on the World Wide Web with two bids received. U.S. Army Research Development & Engineering Command, Natick Contracting Division, Natick, Mass., is the contracting activity (W911QY-10-D-0007). ~Day & Zimmermann Hawthorne Corp., Hawthorne, Nev., was awarded on June 30 a $16,072,491 firm-fixed-price contract for services for the operation and maintenance of Hawthorne Army Depot, storage, shipment and receipt of ammunition. Work is to be performed in Hawthorne, Nev., with an estimated completion date of Dec. 31, 2010. One bid was solicited with one bid received. Rock Island Contracting Center, Rock Island, Ill., is the contracting activity (DAAA09-99-D-0022). ~Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, N.J., was awarded on June 30 a $13,883,313 cost-plus-fixed-fee contract. The purpose of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency’s Persistent Stare Exploitation and Analysis program is to build a revolutionary wide area motion imagery (WAMI) analysis workstation called the Persistent Motion Imagery Analysis Tool for Exploitation (PerMIATE). PerMIATE will leverage the most promising technologies in computer vision, machine learning, artificial intelligence, and data visualization in an integrated system that will discover and analyze high-value intelligence content embedded in massive amount of WAMI data, both online and forensically. The most critical information will be clearly and intuitively presented to the video analyst for validation or refutation through deep exploration of the underlying evidence, resulting in substantial reductions in analyst workload as well as increasing the quality and accuracy of intelligence yield. Work is to be performed in Clifton Park, N.Y. (32 percent); Golden Valley, Minn. (12 percent); Melbourne, Fla. (8 percent); Woburn, Mass. (9 percent); Berkeley, Calif. (7 percent); College Park, Md. (6 percent); Troy, N.Y. (3 percent); Berkeley, Calif. (9 percent); Atlanta, Ga. (6 percent); Orlando, Fla. (5 percent); and New York, N.Y. (3 percent), with an estimated completion date of Dec. 30, 2013. Bids were solicited on the World Wide Web with three bids received. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Arlington, Va., is the contracting activity (HR0011-10-C-0112). ~Emerson Construction Co., Inc., Temple, Texas, was awarded on June 30 a $12,805,000 firm-fixed-price contract for the construction of an Army Reserve Center, San Antonio, Texas. Work is to be performed in Fort Sam Houston, Texas, with an estimated completion date of Dec. 22, 2011. Bids were solicited on the World Wide Web with 19 bids received. U.S. Corps of Engineers, Louisville District, Louisville, Ky., is the contracting activity (W912QR-10-C-0063). ~Boeing Research & Technology, Seattle, Wash., was awarded on June 29 a $12,527,049 cost-plus-fixed-fee contract. Boeing will reduce the risk and uncertainties associated with performing extended flight information to a sufficient level while still achieving a significant aerodynamic performance benefit. Where the risks cannot be completely mitigated, Boeing will quantify them with respect to formation type and relative positioning, enabling a trade or performance benefit versus risk and impact. Work is to be performed in Seattle, Wash. (40.64 percent); Louisville, Colo. (18.15 percent); East Hartford, Conn. (2.24 percent); El Segundo, Calif. (2.62 percent); Long Beach, Calif. (25.34 percent); and Renton, Wash. (11.01 percent), with an estimated completion date of June 30, 2012. One bid was solicited with one bid received. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Contracts Management Office, Arlington, Va., is the contracting activity (HR0011-10-C-0090). ~General Dynamics Ordnance and Tactical Systems, Inc., St. Petersburg, Fla., was awarded on June 30 an $11,027,351 basic order agreement with firm-fixed-price delivery orders. This award is made under the terms of the existing basic ordering agreement for the small caliber ammunition second source prime contractor for the production of 5.56mm ammunition used in M4 carbines, M16A2 rifles, and M249 light machine guns; 7.6mm ammunition used in M240 series machine guns; and Caliber .50 small arms ammunition used in M2 and other heavy machine guns. Work is to be performed in Saint Petersburg, Fla., with an estimated completion date of Oct. 27, 2011. Bids were solicited on the World Wide Web with two bids received. U.S. Army Field Support Command, Rock Island, Ill., is the contracting activity (W52P1J-05-G-0002). ~Lockheed Martin Services, Inc., Gaithersburg, Md., was awarded on June 29 a $10,989,965 firm-fixed-price contract. The contractor will provide the government of United Arab Emirates with one General Purpose Electronic Test Station (GET)-1000M2M; one GET-1000B2M; one GET-1000B2; installation and training; one lot of spares for the test stations; one lot of technical support and replacements for GET-1000B2M obsolete items. The government of Kuwait will be provided with 34 test program sets (TPS); two station upgrades; and one TPS training course for four weeks. The government of Israel will be provided with one station modification AN0025, adding power supply testing capability, and 14 TPS. Work is to be performed in Huntsville, Ala. (56.80 percent); locations outside the contiguous U.S. (25.81 percent); Englewood, Colo. (10.70 percent); North Reading, Mass. (5.35 percent); Wichita, Kan., (0.89 percent); and Waynesboro, Va. (0.45 percent), with an estimated completion date of June 30, 2015. One bid was solicited with one bid received. Army Contracting Command, AMCOM Contracting Center Redstone Arsenal., Ala., is the contracting activity (W31P4Q-10-C-0240). ~Oshkosh Corp., Oshkosh, Wis., was awarded on June 30 a $8,750,000 firm-fixed-price contract for the procurement of 1,750 kits for Command, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance suite and battery upgrade/silent watch for Operation Enduring Freedom upgrades on the Mine Resistant Ambush Protected all-terrain vehicle. Work is to be performed in Oshkosh, Wis., with an estimated completion date of May 31, 2012. Five bids were solicited with five bids received. TACOM, AMSCC-TAC-ADCA, Warren, Mich., is the contracting activity (W56HZV-09-D-0111). ~Caelum Research Corp., Rockville, Md., was awarded on June 30 an $8,641,352 firm-fixed-price contract for information systems operations and support services, i.e., communication security, database management, systems administration, helpdesk, programming, and data handling. Work is to be performed in White Sands Missile Range, N.M., with an estimated completion date of Feb. 28, 2011. Forty bids were solicited with forty bids received. Mission & Installation Contracting Command Directorate of Contracting, White Sands Missile Range, N.M., is the contracting activity (DABK39-03-C-0053). NAVY ~Electric Boat Corp., Groton, Conn., is being awarded a $171,856,353 contract for lead yard services, development studies and design efforts related to Virginia Class submarines. The contract includes options which, if exercised, would bring the cumulative value to $880,871,020. Work will be performed in Groton, Conn. (91.1 percent); Newport, R.I. (1.4 percent); Quonset, R.I. (3.5 percent); and Newport News, Va. (4 percent). Work is expected to be completed by October 2010. Contract funds will not expire at the end of the current fiscal. This contract was not competitively procured. The Naval Sea Systems Command, Washington, D.C., is the contracting activity (N00024-10-C-2118). ~Raytheon Co., Tucson, Ariz., is being awarded a $44,478,772 cost-plus-fixed-fee contract for fiscal 2010 design agent engineering services for the MK-31 rolling airframe missile (RAM) guided missile weapon system, a cooperative development and production program conducted jointly by the U.S. and the Federal Republic of Germany under memoranda of understanding. The support procured is required to maintain current weapon system capability, as well as resolve issues through design, systems, software maintenance, reliability, maintainability, quality assurance, and logistics engineering services. The contract includes options which, if exercised, would bring the cumulative value of this contract to $167,314,515. Work will be performed in Tucson, Ariz., and is expected to be completed by September 2010. Contract funds in the amount of $2,254,245 will expire at the end of the current fiscal year. This contract was not competitively procured. The Naval Sea Systems Command, Washington, D.C., is the contracting activity (N00024-10-C-5432). ~Raytheon Co., Integrated Defense Systems, Sudbury, Mass., is being awarded a $13,682,885 firm-fixed-price definitization modification to previously awarded contract (N00024-06-G-5109) for procurement of three AN/SPY-1 radar transmitter multi-mission capability ordnance alteration (ORDALT) kits; 15 stabilized master oscillator ORDALT kits; 16 kill assessment system ORDALT kits; and four radio frequency coherent combiners. Work will be performed in Andover, Mass. (47 percent); Norfolk, Va. (47 percent); and Sudbury, Mass. (6 percent), and is expected to be completed by April 2012. Contract funds will not expire at the end of the current fiscal year. The Naval Sea Systems Command, Washington Navy Yard, D.C., is the contracting activity. ~DRS Sonar Systems, LLC, Gaithersburg, Md., is being awarded a $9,677,410 firm-fixed-price contract for development and fielding of a high search rate tactical anti-submarine warfare capability in the form of a variable depth sonar (VDS) for installation on the littoral combat ship. The VDS system is a multi-faceted engineered system that is composed of a rugged specialized handling system with an additional specialized articulating arm and capture mechanism, for a size of a small car weight/volume towed body; a variable depth sonar that can survive high sea states, work in deep water at combatant flank speeds, and generate high underwater source code level to detect submerged submarines. A major component of the VDS system is the towed active subsystem which consists of a hydro-dynamically stable tow body, tow cable, handling and stowage equipment and acoustic transmit assemblies. This contract includes options which, if exercised, would bring the cumulative value of this contract to $12,711,816. Work will be performed in Gaithersburg, Md. (10 percent); Panama City, Fla. (20 percent); and Stockport, United Kingdom (70 percent), and is expected to be completed by September 2011. Contract funds will not expire at the end of the current fiscal year. This contract was competitively procured with unlimited proposals solicited and three offers received. The Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division, Newport, R.I., is the contracting activity (N66604-10-C-0675). DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY ~Direct Energy Business, LLC, Pittsburgh, Pa., is being awarded a maximum $90,294,923 fixed-price with economic price adjustment contract to provide electricity. Other location of performance is Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Ill. Using service is federal civilian agencies. There were originally 66 proposals solicited with four responses. The date of performance completion is Jan. 2, 2014. The Defense Energy Support Center, Fort Belvoir, Va., is the contracting activity (SP0600-10-D-8012). AIR FORCE ~Pratt and Whitney Military Aftermarket Services, San Antonio, Texas, was awarded a $51,960,191 contract for the overhaul of core module, with a quantity of 28. This contract will support the F100-229, F15, and F16 aircraft. At this time, $51,960,191 has been obligated. 448 SCMG/PKBCB, Tinker Air Force Base, Okla., is the contracting activity (FA8121-10-C-0019). U.S. SPECIAL OPERATIONS COMMAND ~Raytheon Co., McKinney, Texas, is being awarded an indefinite-delivery/indefinite-quantity contract (H92241-10-D-0004) with a maximum value of $17,000,000 for depot-level maintenance support for the AN/APQ-174B multi-mode radar in support of U.S. Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) Technology Applications Program Office. The minimum order amount of $8,483,514 will be obligated with the basic contract. The work will be performed in McKinney, Texas; the performance period ends June 30, 2014. This contract was awarded through sole-source procedures in accordance with FAR 6.302-1. USSOCOM is the contracting activity.
DTN News: Fourth C-130J Heads Home To Norway
(NSI News Source Info) MARIETTA, Ga., - July 3, 2010: Norway’s fourth C-130J leaves the Lockheed Martin [NYSE: LMT] facility in Marietta. Norway placed a contract in November 2007 for four C-130J Super Hercules through the Foreign Military Sales (FMS) program. The first was delivered in November 2008. The new fleet enables Norway to meet its national airlift mission requirements and missions in support of international organizations like the U.N. and NATO.
The C-130J is the newest version of the Hercules and the only model still in production. Externally similar to the classic Hercules in general appearance, the J model sports considerably updated technology. These differences include new Rolls-Royce AE 2100 D3 turboprops with Dowty R391 composite scimitar propellers, digital avionics (including Head-Up Displays (HUDs) for each pilot) and reduced crew requirements (two pilots and one loadmaster—no navigator or flight engineer). The aircraft can also be configured with the "enhanced cargo handling system". The system consists of a computerized load masters station from where the user can remotely control the under floor winch and also configure the flip floor system to palletized roller or flat floor cargo handling.
The cargo compartment is approximately 41 feet (12.5 m) long, 9 feet (2.7 m) high, and 10 feet (3.0 m) wide, and loading is from the rear of the fuselage. Initially developed for the USAF, this system enables rapid role changes to be carried out and so extends the C-130J's time available to complete taskings. These combined changes have improved performance over its C-130E/H siblings, such as 40% greater range, 21% higher maximum speed, and 41% shorter take-off distance.
The Royal Norwegian Air Force ordered four C-130Js in 2007 to replace six aging C-130Hs in need of additional repairs. The first aircraft was delivered in November 2008. Media Contact: Peter Simmons
DTN News: Russia To Sell $1 Billion Worth Of Arms To Yemen - Expert
(NSI News Source Info) MOSCOW, Russia - July 2, 2010: Russia and Yemen could sign an arms contract worth over $1 billion, an international arms expert said on Thursday. A Yemeni delegation led by President Ali Abdullah Saleh discussed sales of Russian arms to the Arab republic on Wednesday during the leader's short visit to Moscow. Igor Korotchenko, head of a Moscow-based think tank on the international arms trade, said Yemen "is interested in a very broad range of Russian arms and military equipment," especially MiG-29 SMT jet fighters (up to 30), Mi-35 and Ka-52 helicopter gunships and Mi-17 military transport helicopters. He said Saleh's wish list also included T-72M1 tanks, Kornet E antitank complexes, Smerch multiple launch rocket systems (up to 20 units), and BMP-3 infantry fighting vehicles. "In addition, Yemen is interested in building an air-defense system with [Russian made] S-300MPU and S-300 PMU1 surface-to-air missile complexes," Korotchenko said. He said Yemen would also like to modernize the weaponry it bought from the Soviet Union, including BRDM-2 armored reconnaissance vehicles, whose number currently exceeds 1,000. Furthermore, he said, Yemen needs warships, in particular high-speed patrol boats, to fight piracy in the Gulf of Aden.
DTN News: Cyberwar - The Threat From The Internet
*It is time for countries to start talking about arms control on the internetTHROUGHOUT history new technologies have revolutionised warfare, sometimes abruptly, sometimes only gradually: think of the chariot, gunpowder, aircraft, radar and nuclear fission. So it has been with information technology. Computers and the internet have transformed economies and given Western armies great advantages, such as the ability to send remotely piloted aircraft across the world to gather intelligence and attack targets. But the spread of digital technology comes at a cost: it exposes armies and societies to digital attack. The threat is complex, multifaceted and potentially very dangerous. Modern societies are ever more reliant on computer systems linked to the internet, giving enemies more avenues of attack. If power stations, refineries, banks and air-traffic-control systems were brought down, people would lose their lives. Yet there are few, if any, rules in cyberspace of the kind that govern behaviour, even warfare, in other domains. As with nuclear- and conventional-arms control, big countries should start talking about how to reduce the threat from cyberwar, the aim being to restrict attacks before it is too late. The army reboots Cyberspace has become the fifth domain of warfare, after land, sea, air and space (see article). Some scenarios imagine the almost instantaneous failure of the systems that keep the modern world turning. As computer networks collapse, factories and chemical plants explode, satellites spin out of control and the financial and power grids fail. That seems alarmist to many experts. Yet most agree that infiltrating networks is pretty easy for those who have the will, means and the time to spare. Governments know this because they are such enthusiastic hackers themselves. Spies frequently break into computer systems to steal information by the warehouse load, whether it is from Google or defence contractors. Penetrating networks to damage them is not much harder. And, if you take enough care, nobody can prove you did it. The cyber-attacks on Estonia in 2007 and on Georgia in 2008 (the latter strangely happened to coincide with the advance of Russian troops across the Caucasus) are widely assumed to have been directed by the Kremlin, but they could be traced only to Russian cyber-criminals. Many of the computers used in the attack belonged to innocent Americans whose PCs had been hijacked. Companies suspect China of organising mini-raids to ransack Western know-how: but it could just have easily been Western criminals, computer-hackers showing off or disillusioned former employees. One reason why Western governments have until recently been reticent about cyber-espionage is surely because they are dab hands at it, too. As with nuclear bombs, the existence of cyber-weapons does not in itself mean they are about to be used. Moreover, an attacker cannot be sure what effect an assault will have on another country, making their deployment highly risky. That is a drawback for sophisticated military machines, but not necessarily for terrorists or the armies of rogue states. And it leaves the dangers of online crime and espionage. All this makes for dangerous instability. Cyber-weapons are being developed secretly, without discussion of how and when they might be used. Nobody knows their true power, so countries must prepare for the worst. Anonymity adds to the risk that mistakes, misattribution and miscalculation will lead to military escalation—with conventional weapons or cyberarms. The speed with which electronic attacks could be launched gives little time for cool-headed reflection and favours early, even pre-emptive, attack. Even as computerised weapons systems and wired infantry have blown away some of the fog of war from the battlefield, they have covered cyberspace in a thick, menacing blanket of uncertainty. One response to this growing threat has been military. Iran claims to have the world’s second-largest cyber-army. Russia, Israel and North Korea boast efforts of their own. America has set up its new Cyber Command both to defend its networks and devise attacks on its enemies. NATO is debating the extent to which it should count cyberwar as a form of “armed attack” that would oblige its members to come to the aid of an ally. But the world needs cyberarms-control as well as cyber- deterrence. America has until recently resisted weapons treaties for cyberspace for fear that they could lead to rigid global regulation of the internet, undermining the dominance of American internet companies, stifling innovation and restricting the openness that underpins the net. Perhaps America also fears that its own cyberwar effort has the most to lose if its well-regarded cyberspies and cyber-warriors are reined in. Such thinking at last shows signs of changing, and a good thing too. America, as the country most reliant on computers, is probably most vulnerable to cyber-attack. Its conventional military power means that foes will look for asymmetric lines of attack. And the wholesale loss of secrets through espionage risks eroding its economic and military lead. Hardware and soft war If cyberarms-control is to America’s advantage, it would be wise to shape such accords while it still has the upper hand in cyberspace. General Keith Alexander, the four-star general who heads Cyber Command, is therefore right to welcome Russia’s longstanding calls for a treaty as a “starting point for international debate”. That said, a START-style treaty may prove impossible to negotiate. Nuclear warheads can be counted and missiles tracked. Cyber-weapons are more like biological agents; they can be made just about anywhere. So in the meantime countries should agree on more modest accords, or even just informal “rules of the road” that would raise the political cost of cyber-attacks. Perhaps there could be a deal to prevent the crude “denial-of-service” assaults that brought down Estonian and Georgian websites with a mass of bogus requests for information; NATO and the European Union could make it clear that attacks in cyberspace, as in the real world, will provoke a response; the UN or signatories of the Geneva Conventions could declare that cyber-attacks on civilian facilities are, like physical attacks with bomb and bullet, out of bounds in war; rich countries could exert economic pressure on states that do not adopt measures to fight online criminals. Countries should be encouraged to spell out their military policies in cyberspace, as America does for nuclear weapons, missile defence and space. And there could be an international centre to monitor cyber-attacks, or an international “duty to assist” countries under cyber-attack, regardless of the nationality or motive of the attacker—akin to the duty of ships to help mariners in distress. The internet is not a “commons”, but a network of networks that are mostly privately owned. A lot could also be achieved by greater co-operation between governments and the private sector. But in the end more of the burden for ensuring that ordinary people’s computer systems are not co-opted by criminals or cyber-warriors will end up with the latter—especially the internet-service providers that run the network. They could take more responsibility for identifying infected computers and spotting attacks as they happen. None of this will eradicate crime, espionage or wars in cyberspace. But it could make the world a little bit safer.
*This article is being posted from Toronto, Canada By DTN News ~ Defense-Technology News, contact: email@example.com